Types of Research
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While literature on achieving Inclusive Agricultural Transformation (IAT) through input market policies is relatively robust, literature on the effect of output market policies on IAT is rarer. We conduct a selective literature review of output market policies in low- and middle-income countries to assess their influence on IAT and find that outcomes are mixed across all policy areas. We also review indicators used to measure successful IAT, typologies of market institutions involved in IAT, and agricultural policies and maize yield trends in East Africa. This report details our findings on these connected, yet somewhat disparate elements of IAT to shed more light on a topic that has not been the primary focus of the literature thus far.
In many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia smallholder farmers are among the most vulnerable to climatic changes, and the observed shocks and stresses associated with these changes impact agricultural systems in many ways. This research brief offers findings on observed or measured changes in precipitation, temperature or both, on five biophysical pathways and systems including variable or changing growing seasons, extreme events, biotic stressors, plant species density, richness and range, impacts to streamflow, and impacts on crop yield. These findings are the result of a review of relevant documents cited in Kilroy (2015), references included in the IPCC draft Special Report on Food Security, and targeted searches from 2015 - present for South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.
This brief presents selected material from the Fourth African Agricultural Markets Program (AAMP) policy symposium, Agricultural Risks Management in Africa: Taking Stock of What Has and Hasn’t Worked, organized by the Alliance for Commodity Trade in Eastern and Southern Africa and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa that took place in Lilongwe, Malawi, September 6-10, 2010. We draw almost exclusively from Rashid and Jayne’s summary, “Risk Management in African Agriculture: A review of experiences.” This article summarizes across the background papers, with major findings grouped into three broad categories: cross cutting, government-led policies, and modern instruments.
EPAR’s Poultry Markets in West Africa series provides an overview of poultry market trends across West Africa and compares the opportunities for poultry sector development in Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone. The briefs in this series provide detailed country-specific poultry market analyses. The primary resources for these analyses included many reports prepared in response to the avian influenza epidemic, which may explain some of the emphasis on the importance of biosecurity in the available literature. We find that the West African poultry sector faces high production costs, safety concerns due to lack of sanitary controls, and technical constraints in processing and marketing. In addition to biological issues, the lack of breeders, marketing, and processing technology present technical constraints to poultry sector growth.
This report provides an overview of poultry market trends in Benin as compared to the wider West African region. In Benin, live chickens, hens, poultry meat, and eggs for consumption are subject to the 20 percent Common External Tariff (CET), which facilitates an influx of cheap poultry imports from the European Union (EU). Live turkeys and other poultry, reproducers, and hatching eggs are subject to a 5 percent tariff. In the late 1990s, Benin experienced an influx of cheap poultry products primarily from the EU. By 2002, annual poultry imports reached approximately 24,000 tons, more than the poultry imports of any other country in West Africa. In 2004 and 2005, Benin banned imports of poultry and poultry by-products from countries affected by avian influenza. Current information about the poultry industry in Benin is limited. The primary sources for this analysis are a FAO poultry sector review from 2006, a poultry sector project report from the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), and a 2006 assessment by the Benin Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Fishing. We find that the poultry sector plays an important economic, social and cultural role in Benin. Poultry and egg production is a major contributor to the agricultural sector and is an important source of nutrition and income for Beninese households. The poultry sector in Benin has the potential to improve the nutritional wellbeing and income security of a large percentage of the population. Traditional smallholders produce the majority of poultry products domestically; however, current production is limited due to low productivity, poor biosecurity, and lack of inputs. We find that a reduction of foreign imports and greater institutional support for the industry may help domestic producers reach their potential.
This report provides an overview of poultry market trends in Sierra Leone as compared to the wider West African region. Sierra Leone did not adopt the Common External Tariff (CET) until 2005, however 2004 tariff rates were already on par with official CET rates. The tariff for live chickens, hens, poultry meat and eggs for consumption remains at 20 percent, which facilitates an influx of cheap poultry imports from Europe. Live turkeys and eggs for hatching are subject to a 5 percent tariff. There is little public information available regarding poultry production in Sierra Leone. The primary sources for this analysis are Government of Sierra Leone documents responding to the avian influenza epidemic in the West African region. This report provides a brief overview of consumption and consumer preferences, domestic production, trade, the political environment, and opportunities for future poultry development in Sierra Leone. Because of the small amount of information regarding poultry production in Sierra Leone, we find that further information is necessary to understand the scope of opportunity for poultry market development.
This report provides an overview of poultry market trends in Côte d’Ivoire as compared to the wider West African region. Côte d’Ivoire experienced an influx of cheap poultry products between 2000 and 2005, contributing to a significant increase in poultry consumption during those years. In 2005, Côte d’Ivoire banned imports from countries affected by avian influenza and increased taxes on all other imported poultry. The primary sources for this analysis are the FAO-Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) poultry sector review from 2008 and the information provided by the Interprofession Avicole Ivoirienne (IPRAVI) on their website. IPRAVI is the umbrella organization overseeing Côte d’Ivoire’s poultry sector. We find that smallholders produce the majority of poultry in Côte d’Ivoire. Common production practices lead to low productivity, poor bio-security, and limited distribution opportunities. Since the influx of cheap poultry imports between 2000 and 2005 and the import ban of 2005, overall consumption of poultry has declined along with imports, suggesting significant market potential for domestic poultry products. We provide specific areas for interventions to improve poultry productivity, based upon evidence from the African Development Bank and the FAO. Furthermore, we examine analyses from the FAO that suggest there is sufficient infrastructural capacity to expand the poultry sector and increase smallholder productivity.
This report provides an overview of poultry market trends in Niger as compared to the wider West African region. As of 2009, Niger maintains the 20 percent Common External Tariff (CET) for live chickens and hens, poultry meat, and eggs for consumption. Live turkeys and other poultry, reproducers, and hatching eggs are subject to a 5 percent tariff. The primary source for this analysis is the presentation document by the Groupement des Aviculteurs Privés de la Communauté Urbaine de Niamey et ses Environs (GAP/CUN/E) at the FAO Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Disease Operations’ (ECTAD) Second Poultry Farming Technical Workshop, held in Dakar in June 2009. We find that the poultry sector in Niger currently exhibits poor productivity, widespread disease concerns, and poor organization. The avian influenza epidemic devastated poultry stocks in Niger and the sector has yet to fully recover. Since smallholders comprise the majority of poultry producers in Niger, developing the sector presents an opportunity to improve health and food security.
This report provides an overview of poultry market trends in Nigeria as compared to the wider West African region. As a member of the Economic Community of West African States, Nigeria complies with most Common External Tariff (CET) measures, which facilitates an influx of cheap poultry imports from Europe. The country adopted a ban on poultry imports in 2002 to reduce competition from foreign producers. However, illegal imports continue to enter via land borders. The primary sources for this analysis are the 2006 FAO-Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) poultry sector review and the Pro-Poor Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Risk Reduction group’s 2008 review of Nigeria. We find that poultry keeping is ubiquitous in Nigeria’s rural areas and is increasingly common among peri-urban and urban households as a way to supplement income and increase access to protein. The commercial sector is comprised of operations at a range of sizes, including large-scale, vertically integrated facilities. We find that demand for poultry is rising and is expected to continue increasing as Nigeria’s economy grows. At all levels in the sector, the country’s poultry farmers have opportunities to expand production in response to rising demand.
This report provides an overview of poultry market trends in Ghana as compared to the wider West African region. The primary source for this analysis is the 2006 FAO-Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) poultry sector review. We find that poultry production in Ghana takes place in rural areas throughout the country and in commercial operations near urban centers. However, many domestic producers have been unable to compete with frozen poultry imports, resulting in stagnant domestic per capita production and underutilization of production facilities. The country’s coastal ports provide an entry point for poultry imports, which may explain why imports have dominated the country’s market more than in land-locked countries such as Burkina Faso. Opportunities for poultry development in Ghana include expanding the role of domestic producers in supplying geographic and product niches.